The Role of Religiosity and Optimism on Death Anxiety among Singaporean Adults during COVID-19


  • IJSPS Admin
  • Jamilah Hanum Abdul Khaiyom International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Zahrah Alkaff International Islamic University Malaysia


afterlife, anxiety, fear, pandemic, pessimism, religion


The COVID-19 pandemic has afflicted many lives, exposed individuals to risks of illness, mortality, distress, and public anxiety. The fear and trepidation of death may lead to death anxiety, potentially hindering functioning. Both religiosity and optimism are known to be positive coping tools. This quantitative cross-sectional study examined the role of religiosity and optimism on death anxiety, specifically among Singaporean adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 259 participants (175 females and 83 males) were recruited through snowball sampling. Data was collected using online platforms. The participants were asked to rate the Central of Religiosity Scale, the Life Orientation Test-Revised to measure optimism, and the Revised Death Anxiety Scale. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis were used to test the variables in the study. It was found that Singaporean adults have moderate religiosity and death anxiety levels while having low to moderate levels of optimism. Results of the study observed no significant differences between genders for all measures. However, a significant negative relationship between optimism and death anxiety was found. The study reported that optimism was a protective factor of death anxiety. Findings were discussed with limitations such as sampling method and over-representation. A deeper understanding of the protective factors of death anxiety could help address psychosocial concerns in this pandemic.

Author Biographies

Jamilah Hanum Abdul Khaiyom, International Islamic University Malaysia

Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences

Zahrah Alkaff, International Islamic University Malaysia

Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences